• Do you know about the different types of spyware, its dangers and how you can protect yourself? The article published from p15 in Servamus: October 2021, will provide readers with valuable information about this dangerous software.

  • Along with family and colleagues, Servamus pays tribute to police members who have lost their lives in the line of duty – and to COVID-19. Our article published from p44 in Servamus: October 2021 reminds readers about the dangers our members face each day.

  • The Cybercrimes Act 19 of 2020 has been promulgated and will soon come into operation. Our legal discussion will help readers to understand this new legislation and is published from p22 in Servamus: October 2021.

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Collecting evidence to put the puzzle together
By Kotie Geldenhuys

Despite Hollywood’s portrayal in numerous television programmes, crime scene investigation is a difficult and time-consuming task that cannot be completed in a couple of minutes. Crime scene investigation should be done correctly and while paying attention to the detail from the start, as there is no such luxury as to continue with the processing of a crime scene for days on end. The purpose of crime scene investigation is to establish what happened when the crime was committed, to identify the responsible person by carefully documenting the conditions at a crime scene and recognising all relevant physical evidence. All of these elements can put together the puzzle so that justice can be served.

The success of an investigation depends on how thoroughly and meticulously the crime scene has been investigated. Crime scene investigation is a painstaking process which consists of various phases:

  • The pre-investigation phase starts when the first police official arrives at the crime scene and it includes the walk-through phase.
  • The investigation phase starts with the searching and documentation of the crime scene as well as the collection of evidence.
  • The post-investigation phase is the finalisation of the crime scene search, including a final walk-through to determine whether all determined outcomes have been achieved and that all investigative processes have been completed. Thereafter the crime scene is released and handed back to the owner of the premises or responsible person and the process starts of analysing the evidence by a trained forensic expert (Lochner and Zinn, 2015).

According to Lochner, Horne and Zinn (2020), the objectives of crime scene investigation “is to systematically and carefully identify, recognise, recover, collect, interpret and reconstruct all the physical evidence, facts and clues available at the crime scene ... to ensure that the location of the evidence is accounted for from the scene to after the disposal of the evidence ... and to find the truth and to link or clear a suspect to a crime”.

Additional objectives of crime scene investigation include the determination of the modus operandi of the perpetrator, ascertaining the logical sequence of events, reconstruction of the crime scene and uncovering the motive of the crime among other things (Lochner et al, 2020).

Crime scene examination is the daunting task of trained crime scene examiners from the Criminal Record Centre (CRC) who, together with the investigating officer, usually only have one chance to identify and collect the material needed by the courts as evidence. It is unlikely to recover evidence later if it had not been identified and recovered during the initial investigation of the crime scene. Forensic evidence such as DNA or bullets, fibres, hairs or paint flakes, might be lost if it is not located soon after the crime has been committed (Phago, 2017).

Swanson, Chamelin, Territon and Taylor (2012) mention the following administrative procedures for crime scene processing:

  • Recognition;
  • identification of physical evidence;
  • documentation of evidence location through sketches and photographs;
  • collection, marking and packaging of evidence; and
  • establishing the chain of evidence or control during all stages of handling the evidence.


[This is only an extract of an article published in Servamus: August 2021. The rest of the article discusses issues relating to recording and documenting a crime scene; crime scene photos and sketches; the identification of evidence; and the importance of ethics. If you want to find out how you can read the rest of this article, send an e-mail to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..]

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Servamus - October 2021

The Internet has opened up massive communication and business opportunities to billions of people across the globe.
By Kotie Geldenhuys
Cyberspace continues to revolutionise the way we all live, work and play and with it comes great opportunity for economic prosperity, job creation and technological innovation to solve some of the world’s greatest challenges such as tackling COVID-19, which has been a shared challenge across the world.
By Victoria White, First Secretary (Cyber), British High Commission Pretoria and Peter Goodman, Strategic Advisor to the UK Digital Access Programme
As if the protests and looting in KwaZulu-Natal in July 2021 were not enough to paralyse port operations in Durban for more than a week, Transnet, which is responsible for handling the commercial sea route, was also targeted on 22 July 2021 with a strain of ransomware.
Compiled by Kotie Geldenhuys
Whenever the term “forensics” is used, one is reminded about the Locard exchange principle of “every contact leaves a trace” which states that no perpetrator can leave a crime scene without leaving some trace.
By Annalise Kempen

Pollex - October 2021

Background On 31 March 2017, Mr Nolan van Schalkwyk, the accused, and another man (hereinafter referred to as “the second assailant”) attempted to rob the complainant, who was walking towards the Rentech Station in the Belhar area in the Cape Peninsula at around 06:15, while on his way to work. It was still completely dark.
Relevant law Section 86 of the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act 25 of 2002 (hereinafter referred to as “the ECT Act”) provides as follows:

Letters - October 2021

It’s with great pleasure that I write this e-mail to you.
“GUN FREE SOUTH AFRICA welcomes draft Firearms Control Amendment Bill” When I receive Servamus in the post, at the first opportunity, I remove the wrapping and scan through the contents. Typically, the in-depth reading would take place later.
October Magazine Cover

Servamus' Mission

Servamus is a community-based safety and security magazine for both members of the community as well as safety and security practitioners with the aim of increasing knowledge and sharing information, dedicated to improving their expertise, professionalism and service delivery standards. It promotes sound crime management practices, freedom of speech, education, training, information sharing and a networking platform.