• Extreme weather has led to more frequent flooding. Our article published from p27 in Servamus: January 2022 look at which emergency services are involved during such disasters and give tips to stay safe.

  • Large parts of South Africa have suffered a severe drought for more than 6 years. Our article published from p30 in Servamus: January 2022 look at the impact of droughts on our lives; diseases during droughts and provide tips to save water.

  • Do you know what to do in case of a hazmat incident or vehicle crash? We provide valuable tips on what to do in such cases in our article published from p37 in Servamus: January 2022.

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By Kotie Geldenhuys

A topic that is seldom under discussion in higher education and academic circles is academic corruption and fraud. The reason might simply be because it is believed that higher education institutions are inspired with integrity as they often create life-improving and even life-saving knowledge to their students. Shockingly, corruption and fraud in higher education institutions are widespread and a global problem.

Corruption and fraud in higher education are problematic across the globe and range from political capture of universities to favouritism in admissions, diversion of funds, academic dishonesty and sextortion. There is also falsification of research data, corruption in licensing and accreditation, corruption in staff recruitment and promotions as well as financial mismanagement and procurement fraud (Kirya, 2019). (The latter will not be dealt with in this article.) Prof Damtew Teferra from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) is of the opinion that there are many forms of academic misconduct which include plagiarism, nepotism, corrupt recruitment and admission, cheating in exams, misrepresentation and falsifying of records, biased grading, bribery as well as conspiracy and collusion (Teferra, 2018).

It is important to distinguish between fraud and corruption in higher education. Fraud refers to the unlawful and intentional making of a misrepresentation that causes actual or potential prejudice to another. Corruption refers to any person who gives or accepts or offers to give or accept any gratification amounting to an unauthorised or improper inducement to act or not to act in a particular manner. A student who cheats during an exam or who buys a fake diploma online, for example, without the collusion of a public official, would be guilty of fraud and not of corruption (Kirya, 2019). In this article we will look at a range of corrupt and fraudulent practices.

Through the years, academic misconduct has mushroomed to the extent that it threatens the foundation of the academic arena and society at large. Liz Reisberg, a researcher at the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College in the USA, writes in the book Corruption in Higher Education: Global challenges and responses that “academic corruption undermines the ability of universities to create high quality human resources, and the ability of societies to trust the integrity of higher education outputs. Universities globally must proactively cultivate honest and ethical practices, and awareness of risks to the academic enterprise and society when such values are subverted” (MacGregor, 2020). Adv Monica Kirya, an advocate of the High Court of Uganda and member of the U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre in Norway, added that “corruption and fraud ruin the reputations of universities, blocks access for applicants who do meet the requirements and waste money spent on students who are not capable” (Kirya, 2019). The dangers of unleashing a dubious graduate who presumes to have honestly qualified as a medical doctor, pilot, engineer or accountant are obvious (Teferra, 2018).

Admission fraud
Admission fraud in higher education is a common phenomenon across the world. There are only two ways to get into a top university. The first, and correct way, is through the “front door” which requires academic achievements and extracurricular activities. The other is through the “back door” which involves the right connections, massive donations, bribery, fraud and corruption. Adv Kirya explains that fraud and corruption can taint selection and admission to a university. “Bribery can earn a pass mark on entrance examinations, or test material may be leaked in advance to give some students an unfair advantage. A bribe can even secure admission for a wholly unqualified student,” she said (Kirya, 2019).

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[This is only an extract of an article published in Servamus: December 2021. If you are interested in reading the rest of the article, send an e-mail to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to find out what you need to do. The article also focuses on Government interference in the running of tertiary institutions; essay mills; exam fraud; questionable qualifications; buying a qualification; diploma and degree mills; sexually transmitted grades and dealing with academic corruption and fraud. Ed.]

Servamus - January 2021

In Servamus: December 2021, I discussed how the killing or injuring of a human being may be justified in terms of our common law.
By Adv John I Welch
For many South Africans the word “disaster” became a reality in March 2020 when the President of the country, Mr Cyril Ramaphosa addressed the nation in the first of many “family meetings” to follow when he announced the country’s first lockdown.
By Annalise Kempen
Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, fires, floods and hurricanes are damaging events that change the lives of people within no time.
By Kotie Geldenhuys
Each year during the dry season, which for the largest part of the country is the winter months, authorities warn us about our behaviour about making fire.
By Annalise Kempen

Pollex - January 2022

- S v Tilayi appeal case no: CA 22/2020 High Court Mthatha dated 9 March 2021 and 2021 (2) SACR 350 (ECM)
Mr Mbiyozo Zanodumo Tilayi, the accused, was convicted during a summary trial before the High Court in Mthatha (“the trial court”) of the following offences:
Read More - Messrs (1) Sechaba Seloana; (2) Mmuso Seloana; and (3) Abraham Itumeleng Popa v (1) The Director of Public Prosecutions [for the Free State Province] [DPP]; (2) National Director of Public Prosecutions [NDPP]; and (3) the Presiding Magistrate in the Welkom District Magistrates’ Court case no: 4019/2020 High Court Bloemfontein dated 24 August 2021 (FB)
Relevant, applicable legal provisions Section 75 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977 (“the CPA”) provides as follows:

Letters - January 2022

NAME: W/O L Zandberg STATION: Pretoria Central Magistrates’ Court
During October 2021, my husband and I were on holiday but got stranded 10 km before Jansenville in the Eastern Cape with flat tyres.
January Magazine Cover

Servamus' Mission

Servamus is a community-based safety and security magazine for both members of the community as well as safety and security practitioners with the aim of increasing knowledge and sharing information, dedicated to improving their expertise, professionalism and service delivery standards. It promotes sound crime management practices, freedom of speech, education, training, information sharing and a networking platform.