• The “art” scene is not safe from infiltration by organised criminal groups that have no regard for the real value of these collector’s items. Read Servamus’s article from p39 about how art and cultural artifacts are traded for a range of illegal commodities, including firearms and drugs.

  • Servamus subscribers stand the chance of winning a BYRNA Less-lethal firearm (no need for permits). Turn to p31 of Servamus: December 2020 to find out what you need to do to win this awesome prize worth R7500!

  • Corruption ensures a flourishing illegal wildlife trade. Read the article published in Servamus: December 2020 from p26 to read about the drivers for this type of crime.

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By Annalise Kempen

Do you realise that bullying is a form of child abuse?
It is so serious that the legislature specifically mentions it in the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 where “abuse”, in relation to a child, means any form of harm or ill-treatment deliberately inflicted on a child, and includes bullying by another child.

Bullying should therefore not simply be regarded as anti-social behaviour by a naughty child which we laugh off as being part of childhood. Neither should it be confused with teasing when a few friends team up to "make fun" of their peers. One important difference is that teasing never involves physical or emotional abuse, which is why we need to get behind the reasons why children bully, so we can help them before more serious harm is done and victims suffer more severe trauma.

What is bullying?
The Lexico dictionary describes “bully” as “a person who habitually seeks to harm or intimidate those whom they perceive as vulnerable” (www.lexico.com). Dan Olweus, the creator of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme in the United States, defines bullying in his book Bullying at school: what we know and what we can do as follows: “A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending him- or herself.” He highlights three important aspects about bullying namely that it:

  • is aggressive behaviour that involves unwanted, negative actions;
  • involves a pattern of behaviour repeated over time; and
  • involves an imbalance of power or strength (Violence Prevention Works, Nd).

Bullying is even equated to the concept of harassment which is a form of unprovoked aggression often directed repeatedly towards another individual or group of individuals (Cyberbullying Research Centre, Nd). The Protection of Harassment Act 17 of 2011 defines harassment as “directly or indirectly engaging in conduct that the respondent knows or ought to know -

(a) causes harm or inspires the reasonable belief that harm may be caused to the complainant or a related person by unreasonably -

(i) following, watching, pursuing or accosting the complainant or a related person, or loitering outside of or near the building or place where the complainant or a related person resides, works, carries on business, studies or happens to be;

(ii) engaging in verbal, electronic or any other communication aimed at the complainant or a related person, by any means, whether or not conversation ensues; or

(iii) sending, delivering or causing the delivery of letters, telegrams, packages, facsimiles, electronic mail or other objects to the complainant or a related person or leaving them where they will be found by, given to, or brought to the attention of the complainant or a related person; or

(b) amounts to sexual harassment of the complainant or a related person;..” (See more below.)

Why does someone become a bully?
There is often a perception that someone who bullies has an inferiority complex or low self-esteem. According to Violence Prevention Works (Nd), there are interrelated reasons why someone bullies, which include that such individuals:

  • have strong needs for power and (negative) dominance;
  • find satisfaction in causing injury and suffering to others; and
  • are often rewarded materially or psychologically in some way for their behaviour.

In an attempt to prevent bullying and allow for early intervention, it is important to identify the characteristics of potential bullies who may:

  • have a positive attitude towards violence and the use of violence;
  • have a strong need to dominate and subdue other learners and get their own way;
  • be impulsive, aggressive or easily angered;
  • lack empathy towards learners who are bullied;
  • show defiance and aggression towards adults, including teachers and parents;
  • be involved in other anti-social or rule-breaking activities such as vandalism, delinquency and substance abuse;
  • have greater physical strength than others in general and the learners they bully in particular (especially in boys); and
  • be more likely to report owning a gun for risky reasons, such as to gain respect or to frighten others (Violence Prevention Works, Nd).

Are you a bully?
Even when someone displays dominating behaviour, that does not mean that he or she is a bully. Yet, it is important to know whether you are a bully and find ways to eliminate such bullying tendencies or behaviour. Even adults can be bullies in the workplace. Sometimes someone can become a bully as a form of “defensive” behaviour because they are being bullied. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Are you bullying because it makes you feel powerful?
  • Are you the “kingpin” because you are liked or because people are scared of you?
  • If you are bullying, think about how it would make you feel if someone was making fun of you, harassing you or stealing your lunch money? It would probably make you feel awful, afraid and alone (Childline, Nd).


[This is only an excerpt of an article published in Servamus: May 2020. The rest of the article discusses the legal aspects related to bullying; whether bullies can apologise for their behaviour; what schools’ role are in dealing with bullying and tips on how to identify when someone is bullied. If you are interested in reading the full article, send an email to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to find out what to do. Ed.]

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Servamus - December 2020

The term "organised crime" is associated with crimes involving "big money": cash-in-transit robberies, smuggling of precious metals and stones, smuggling of wildlife and animal parts, drug trafficking, cross-border vehicle crime and money laundering, to name a few.
By Kotie Geldenhuys
The concept of organised crime often evokes images of mafia- like figures and secret societies involved in drug trafficking and murder.
By Kotie Geldenhuys
The use of excessive force by law enforcers across the world is not uncommon.
By Prof André Buys
Since the Czech fugitive, Radovan Krejcir, entered South Africa with a false passport in 2007, the bodies of people associated with him have been piling up.
By Kotie Geldenhuys

Pollex - December 2020

Pollex also discussed the following court cases in Servamus: December 2020.
Read More - S v Mathekga and Another (Case no 717/2019) [2020] ZA SCA 77 (30 June 2020) (SCA)
Introduction This is a regrettable and most unfortunate case in which police officials shot and killed one of their own colleagues, and shot and wounded another.

Letters - December 2020

NAME: W/O L H Zandberg STATION: Pretoria Central SAPS
Congratulations are in order for Lt-Col Marli Strydom from the Northern Cape who was awarded a bronze certificate during the sixth annual National Batho Pele Excellence Awards 2020. The ceremony was held on 30 October 2020 in Boksburg.
December Magazine Cover

Servamus' Mission

Servamus is a community-based safety and security magazine for both members of the community as well as safety and security practitioners with the aim of increasing knowledge and sharing information, dedicated to improving their expertise, professionalism and service delivery standards. It promotes sound crime management practices, freedom of speech, education, training, information sharing and a networking platform.